Eating Disorder - an Overview

Definition

Our relationships with food and our bodies can be complicated. Many people experience ups and downs when it comes to how they eat and how they feel about their bodies. When someone experiences a prolonged period or pattern of negative or unhealthy thoughts and behaviours related to food, eating or body image, it may be a sign that they have an Eating Disorder. Even though the symptoms of eating disorders seem to be all about food and body image, they are often more complicated than just wanting to look a certain way. Eating disorders are a mental illness and actually have very little to do with food, eating, or appearance. Those are merely symptoms of the disorder and how a person’s distress is manifested, but the root of the problem is often much deeper.

Eating Disorders are mental illnesses that involve a pattern of disturbed eating habits and behaviours that are significant enough to get in the way of good physical health and ability to live a comfortable life. Eating Disorders are potentially life-threatening and have the highest mortality rate of any other group of mental illnesses. 

The term Eating Disorders describes a wide range of issues and symptoms, and each person may experiences eating disorders differently. Some common Eating Disorders are listed here, but it’s important to remember that most people don’t fit neatly into a “category”.

There are currently four main types eating disorders that are considered the most common:

  • Anorexia Nervosa: Someone who has a pattern of restricting food, or eating a lot of food in a way that is “out of control” (binging) followed by extreme efforts to rid themselves of the effects (purging) might be diagnosed with Anorexia. People with Anorexia have an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming “fat” despite being under a weight that is considered healthy for their age, body type, development etc. They can have trouble recognizing how their body really looks, believing they are bigger than they really are. They engage in extreme activities to lose weight or to feel “in control”.
  • Bulimia Nervosa: Someone who has a pattern of eating a lot of food in a way that is “out of control” (binging) followed by extreme efforts to rid themselves of the effects (purging) might be diagnosed with Bulimia. Bulimia can also cause a person to base their self-worth on their weight or shape.
  • Binge Eating Disorder: If someone struggles with a pattern of binge eating (eating an unusually large amount of food within a relatively short period of time and feeling out of control over what and how much is eaten), followed by troubling feelings of guilt or shame, and if this pattern impairs their ability to live a healthy and happy life, they might be diagnosed with Binge Eating Disorder.
  • Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED): If someone has a pattern of eating related and/or body image issues and behaviours that are causing them to have distress but that don’t meet all the criteria of other Eating Disorders, they might be diagnosed with OSFED.

They are not:

  • Lifestyle choices or diets.
  • A sign or result of low intelligence, weakness, or vanity.
  • Something that someone can cure by “just eating”.
Myths

Eating disorders are sometimes misunderstood by people who don’t have direct experience with them. Some common myths are:  

Myth: Only girls have Eating Disorders.

Fact: Eating disorders can affect anyone and while they are believed to be more common in females, current research is showing that up to one-third of eating disorder sufferers are male.

Myth: You can tell who has an Eating Disorder by looking at them.

Fact: Not everyone who is very thin has an Eating Disorder, and not everyone who has an Eating Disorder is very thin. Eating Disorders are identified by medical professionals by assessing how someone is thinking and behaving, not by their weight or body shape.

Myth: Anorexia is the only serious Eating Disorder.

Fact:  All Eating Disorders are serious. When researchers looked at the death rates of eating disorder outpatients, they found that Bulimia and OSFED had the same mortality rate as Anorexia. Binge Eating Disorder carries many serious health risks too, and severe psychological/emotional distress can occur amongst any eating disorder.

Myth: Eating Disorders are caused by unhealthy and unrealistic images in the media.

Fact: While society and media can contribute to or trigger eating disorders, research has shown that the causes are usually a combination of factors, and not everyone who is exposed to this media develops an eating disorder. Also, eating disorders have been documented as early as the 1800s, long before mass media promoted thin images.

Myth: People with eating disorders are just vain and care too much about their looks.

Fact: Eating disorders are a mental illness and actually have very little to do with food, eating, or appearance. Those are merely symptoms of the disorder and how a person’s distress is manifested, but the root of the problem is often much deeper.

Myth: All teenaged girls worry about their weight. Fasting and dieting is a pretty normal phase for them.

Fact: While many young people (male and female) worry about their weight and body shape, it is not “typical” or healthy for a growing person to engage in extreme dieting or fasting in order to lose weight. Eating disorders are not diets. They are a serious mental illnesses with a high mortality rate, and should be taken seriously.

Myth: Purging always means self-induced vomiting.

Fact: Purging can show itself in many different ways, including fasting, unsafe amounts of exercise, misusing laxatives, or self induced vomiting. 

References

The information on this page is a simple overview of a complicated health issue. The content has been taken from NEDICNEDA, and the DSM Library. For more in-depth information, please visit these sources or speak to a medical professional.

Ontario – call ConnexOntario to find out where there are mental health supports in your community.

Crisis – in any situation where someone is at risk of hurting themselves or others, call 911 or a local crisis line.

Please see the Help Section for more information and resources.